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INRERSECTORAL URBAN VIOLENCE PREVENTION

INRERSECTORAL URBAN VIOLENCE PREVENTION

Case Study One
Activity: Set Up Mechanisms for Violence Prevention in Schools (Students-Police Forums)
Date: The case was first documented: 26th January 2018
Where: Kaptembwo Primary School


What was the issue/problem?

This is a case of Emmanuel; a standard five pupil in Kaptembwo Primary School who was being subjected to physical and psychological violence by his parents. He had marks all over his body, a wound in his leg that was caused by beatings from his mother, his uniform was tattered and he did not have a sweater. Following consultations with his teachers, it emerged that he would always come to school late and his academic performance was poor.

What did IUVP intervention do?

The student approached Corporal Beth Kamau, the gender and children officer at Kaptembwo Police Station and opened up on how he was being abused and forced to do chores in the morning before coming to school at a student-police forum organised by Midrift Hurinet. The forum was aimed at building trust between the police and pupils, enhancing reporting and promoting student knowledge on violence and violence prevention mechanisms.  The gender officer and Inspector of police Ahmed Salat had just educated the pupils on their rights and the rights of the police using the booklet ‘101 Things You Wanted to Know About the Police but Were Too Afraid Ask’ emphasising the importance of reporting all forms of violence.

Corporal Kamau took up the case and reached out to the parents. Emmanuel’s father was not aware of what was going on because he used to leave home very early and got home when the children were asleep. Corporal Kamau explained to them the human right abuses inherent in the case and then warned them against further perpetration of violations against the boy. Both parents were remorseful and the father undertook to ensure protection of the minor and took charge of the situation by ensuring he drops the child in school every morning before proceeding to work and guaranteeing the welfare of the boy is well taken care of. With contributions from Midrift Hurinet staff, the gender officer bought uniform for the boy.

What was the impact/result of our intervention on the stakeholder (s)?

The deputy head teacher confirmed to Midrift Hurinet that the father drops Emmanuel in school every day and that his academic performance has improved significantly.

 

Case Study Two
Activity: Community Policing Forum (CPF)
Date case was first documented: 14th June 2018
Where: Kaptembwo

What was the issue/problem?

A 12year old girl in Kaptembwo informal settlement had been continually defiled by a 45year old local musician neighbour and in the process, she was impregnated. Such forms of violence are normalised in the area and this is not an isolated case but just one among many that go unreported. In this case the family of the girl had not reported the matter to the relevant authorities until the girl was five months pregnant when a neighbour reported to the police. Within Kaptembwo informal settlement such incidences lead to child neglect, child abuse, unsafe abortions, early child forced marriages, upsurge in street children entrenching a vicious cycle of normalised violence.

What did IUVP intervention do?

It was after Midrift Hurinet held a Community Policing Forum (CPF) at Kaptembwo when later that night Corporal Beth Kamau the gender and children officer at Kaptembwo Police station, received a call from the neighbour concerning the defilement case. The Community policing forum was aimed at enhancing trust between the community and the police as a basic condition for collective action in violence prevention, improve community knowledge on rights, responsibilities and partnerships using the 101 things you wanted to know about the police but were too afraid to ask and increase reporting of violent activities. During the forum, police officers had discussed forms of normalised violence and how to report them assuring them of swift response and the confidentiality of the information shared. Following this forum, the neighbour to the defiled girl was able to report the case and give directions to where the girl stayed to police officers. The girl was rescued and after investigations it was discovered that she had indeed been repeatedly defiled by the 45year old man who was a local musician. The perpetrator was arrested and he is in remand awaiting sentencing by the court of law. The girl has since given birth and the baby is now 2 months old as of July 2018. 

What was the impact/result of our intervention on the stakeholder (s)?
 The girl was put in a rescue centre for safe custody and is nursing her baby. Beside arrest and arraigning the perpetrator before the court of law, there is preservation of evidence to aid in prosecution.
  • The girl was put in a rescue centre for safe custody and is nursing her baby. Beside arrest and arraigning the perpetrator before the court of law, there is preservation of evidence to aid in prosecution.
  • The case acts as a deterrent to would be perpetrators of such normalised violence. 
  • The case increased trust and confidence in the police leading to increased reporting of violence.
 
 

Case Study Three
Activity: Set Up Mechanisms for Violence Prevention in Schools (Students-Police Forums)
Date case was first documented: 27th July 2018
Where: Rubiri Primary School

What was the issue/problem?

At Rubiri primary school in Naivasha Municipality, a standard five girl aged 12yrs has continually been defiled by her biological father in the knowledge of family members who feared reporting the case. The concentration and performance of the pupil at school as observed by teachers had lately deteriorated.

Cases of defilement and child abuse have been rampant in Karagita informal settlement where Rubiri Primary school is situated. Most times, these cases go unreported due to negative perceptions and poor relationships between community members, children and the police. This most often leads to high school dropouts and subsequent upsurge in street families.

What did IUVP intervention do?

During our first police-student forum at Rubiri primary school with an aim of building trust between the police and pupils, enhancing reporting and promoting student knowledge on violence and violence prevention mechanisms. The pupils were taken through their responsibilities, rights and the rights of the police using the booklet ‘101 Things You Wanted to Know About the Police but Were Too Afraid Ask’ emphasising the importance of reporting all forms of violence by Coporal Aboki and Sergeant Regina from Naivasha police station. The pupils through anonymous written notes reported to the police officers of violent cases that happen around the school, at their homes and on their way to school. One outstanding case was of a 12 year old girl in standard five who was undergoing persistent defilement by his father in the knowledge of her mother and grandmother. The officers mandated the deputy head teacher who was present during the forum to follow-up and give details of the parents’ residence.

The girl after the forum gained confidence and met the teacher in her office and reported the case. The teacher then reported to the police giving details of the case. The matter was taken up where the father of the child was arrested and arraigned in court in April 2018. He was remanded awaiting hearing of the case with the deputy head teacher lined up as a key witness in the case. The father has since pleaded not guilty to the charges and will remain in remand until the case is determined after failing to raise the cash bail awarded. The case as of 27th July, 2018 was scheduled to be heard in August 2018 when schools have closed for the term so as not to interfere with the girl’s school schedule.

What was the impact/result of our intervention on the stakeholder (s)?

• The students-police forums have helped to improve knowledge of their rights and responsibilities. The girl was able to know that it was not normal for her to be defiled and was able to report the case.
• Through this arrest, the case has increased trust and confidence of the pupils in police
• Following reporting of this case, many other pupils have come out and launched own complaints with the police who are following them up

Case Study Four
Activity: Set Up Mechanisms for Violence Prevention in Schools (Students-Police Forums)
Date case was first documented: 26th July 2018
Where: Naivasha Day Secondary School

What was the issue/problem?
In Naivasha Municipality, there is high prevalence of a criminal gang known as ‘odi’ which terrorises the out of school youth and school going children. The gang peddles drugs and substances including bhang and illicit brews targeting students and out of school youth ending up luring students and youth into drug abuse leading to high levels of school dropout. This has become a menace to the students and parents because the gang coerces students to join it and those who refuse are attacked and in some occasions their belongings taken away.

This has been ongoing for a while yet the students had neither reported to the police, school administration nor their parents. They cited lack of trust with the police and teachers for fear of reprisals and victimization from the gangs. Poor student-parents relations was also cited to have hindered reporting to their parents.
What did IUVP intervention do?
A Students-Police forum was held at Naivasha Day Secondary School with a view of: (a). Increasing knowledge of their rights and responsibilities, as well as what constitutes violence; (b). Enhancing trust between students and police as a basic condition for collective action in violence prevention; (c). to enhance reporting of violence. This was done by using Information Education and Communication (IEC) materials including: the ‘101 Things you wanted to know about the police but were too afraid to ask’ booklet; the Kenyan penal code; sexual offences act; and the children’s act.

Following the knowledge sharing, a student passed a note to Corporal Boniface Aboki, the Gender and Children officer stationed at Naivasha Central Police Station. He informed him of a gang operating around the school which was notorious for terrorizing out of school youth and school going students. The note requested Corporal Aboki to address the issue and restore safety and security in the area. During a second forum held in the school, a note was passed to the same police officer in follow up to the action taken on the gang as reported during the first forum.
What was the impact/result of our intervention on the stakeholder (s)?
• There has been a mind-set shift; firstly with students having increasing trust and confidence in the police and secondly, the police finding students as vital source of information in violence prevention.
• In the past school going children were not able to question police officers regarding their actions and how they went about their day to day duties. This fear is being addressed in the ongoing students-police forums.
• The continual holding of students-police forums in a school is a good accountability platform to follow up cases previously reported
• IUVP intervention through the 101 booklet has enabled the students to know and learn that they can report issues to the police and follow up on actions taken without fear.

Case Study Five
Activity: CPC Capacity Building Workshop (s)
Date case was first documented: 26th July 2018

What was the issue/problem?
The establishment of CPCs did not get full support from all police officers because of their legal mandate to hold police officers accountable hence creating basic conditions for collective action in violence prevention was a challenge. In Bondeni informal settlement area violence is largely normalised to the extent of communities accepting the operation of a Criminal gang known as ‘Confirm’ involved in electronic money extortion. Nakuru Central Police Station Community Policing Committee (CPC) sought solutions from Officer Commanding Police Station, Bondeni on how the gang could be demobilized. The police were in denial of the gang’s operation in the area prompting the CPC to bring the matter to the attention of the media for amplification. See story in the following link: https://www.standardmedia.co.ke/article/2001275118/revealed-daring-nakuru-gang-that-robs-residents-of-mobile-cash Following the publication of this article, the Deputy Officer Commanding Police Division (OCPD) Nakuru conducted a raid on the criminal gang without informing the OCS Bondeni who had denied the operation of the gang in his area. Several gang members were arrested and arraigned in court. The OCS Bondeni was not pleased with the raid and accused the CPC of undermining him and consequently threatened the then CPC organizing secretary and a journalist from Radio Amani FM station who was following up on the case.

b. What did IUVP intervention do?

Through the IUVP project, MidRift Hurinet had built the capacity of CPCs on their mandate using the National Police Service guidelines on Community Policing and the ‘101 Things you wanted to know about the police but were too afraid to ask.’ Following these trainings, the CPC were more aware of mechanisms and procedure of holding police officers accountable. Hence when the OCS Bondeni threatened the organizing secretary and a journalist they reported the threats to Nakuru Central Police Station and in the case of the journalist the matter was reported to the Independent Policing Oversight Authority (IPOA) by the CPC. The CPC further met the deputy OCPD and launched a complaint on the OCS Bondeni. The deputy OCPD summoned the OCS Bondeni in the presence of the threated CPC member and CPC Chairperson and the matter was discussed and resolved.

c. What was the impact/result of our intervention on the stakeholder (s)?

• The relationship between the police and CPCs has improved with everybody understanding his/her mandate in community policing
• CPC are now taking initiatives to hold police officers accountable. Police threats to the public now being reported in police stations
• CPCs have initiated projects that are geared towards improving the working conditions of the police. CPC Nakuru mobilised paint and painted Bondeni Police Station.
• Criminal Violence in Bondeni informal settlement perpetrated by the criminal gang “confirm” has significantly gone down. The OCPD Nakuru confirms that the operations of this gang has been largely contained.

Case Study Six
Activity: Radio Program
Date: 12th June 2018 

What was the issue/problem?

Land is a leading source and driver of violence in Nakuru County. This is further fuelled by the fact that much land in Nakuru is not properly demarcated hence many residents have no title deeds. In many cultures, women are not entitled to own land yet the constitution grants them this right. 

During a radio program at Radio Amani FM station, while discussing normalised violence around land issues, Florence Bosibori a listener called in and reported her case. Florence noted that she had duly purchased a two-acre piece of land and that the area Chief (local administrator and some elders) were getting embroiled in the matter arguing that the amount paid for the piece of land was insufficient contrary to legal provision. They argued that Florence should either add more money or agree to take one acre and leave the other acre to the owner, yet the seller and the buyer have no disagreements.

What did IUVP intervention do?
The radio program was aimed at promoting public knowledge on what constitutes violence with a view of: challenging normalized violence; increasing reporting of cases for effective policy interventions; promote trust between the Police and Citizens. The discussions were themed around land reforms and natural resources as one of the seven policy thematic areas identified in the draft violence prevention policy for Nakuru County drafted through the IUVP project. These policy thematic areas are: Culture, values, norms; Organized gangs; Strengthening institutions for violence prevention; Rebuilding community trust; Political incitements and influence; Land reforms and natural resources; and Reporting violence: Data and data use.

An officer from Kenya Lands Alliance (KLA) a Civil Society Organization (CSO) which MidRift Hurinet is engaging to help address issues on land was one of the panelists. Once the above case was reported, the officer from KLA requested Florence to come to their office promising to follow up on the matter.

Florence Bosibori got in touch with MidRift and presented her land documents to forward to KLA to look into the matter and help resolve it.

What was the impact/result of our intervention on the stakeholder (s)?
• There is increasing knowledge of what constitutes normalised violence and how to challenge it
• There is increasing reporting of all forms of violence
• There was a felt need from KLA to work on joint fundraising and for CSOs to focus on addressing specific policy thematic areas